The analysis of the First Law of Thermodynamics and Mass Conservation is required in many industrial process projects, such as for the mining, oil and gas and aerospace industries. It allows the definition of efficiencies and the study of project alternatives as well as diagnostics. A second type of analysis is the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which gives the real operating limit for the applications. It can be combined with the First Law of Thermodynamics to give analysis of availability or available work, and is called Exergetic Analysis. It allows the location of exergy destruction villains and the comparison of different processes. For example, an effluent stream may have a high flow rate and a low temperature difference to the environment, or a low flow rate and a high temperature difference to the environment. In the first case, there is little chance of being used to generate work, but in the second the chances are greater. This is defined by Second Law Analysis, or Exergy. It also serves to compare chemical processes, fluid flows, heat exchange and other thermal processes, as everything is placed on the same basis, exergy. In addition to energy efficiency, based on the First Law, it is possible to define an exergy efficiency, based on the concept of Exergy.
ATS applied the Exergy concept at a Petrobrás oil refining plant, REPLAN in Paulínia, to find out which plant equipment could be improved or optimized to give the greatest return on investment. Exergy can be monetized to give the money flow in each stream of the process. This is called Thermo-economy. In addition to locating Exergia's destruction villains, the study compared different thermal, fluid and chemical equipment on the same basis, allowing for the comparison of configurations and solutions.
Innovatively, ATS worked with the concept of exergy in aircraft, analyzing engines, air-using systems such as air conditioning, pressurization and anti-icing systems, but also electrical and hydraulic systems. Today, these works are a reference for the study of energy and exergy in the world. Many citations were received. It is a theoretical basis for the implementation of tools for pre-project analysis and conceptual design of aircraft. Today with more electric planes or purely electric planes, it is necessary to make a comparison with conventional aircraft. Theoretical aircraft were used, but also based on existing Embraer designs.
An analysis of mass, thermal and exergy balances can be done before the analysis with CFD++ for example. It serves to check whether the equipment is viable and to test the consistency of CFD input data. It is a check on available information and see if it makes physical sense in the strict sense of the term. For every simulation, ATS performs this verification, which guarantees the quality of the work carried out for the clients.
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